BACKGROUND

Newtown Creek and its tributaries are a part of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary that forms the border between the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens.

Since the 1800s, Newtown Creek has been a major New York City industrial waterway. More than 50 major manufacturing operations were located along its banks, including oil refineries, petrochemical plants, fertilizer and glue factories, sawmills, and lumber and coal yards. The area was crowded with commercial vessels, including large boats bringing in raw materials and fuel and taking out oil, chemicals, and metals.

By the early 1900s, the creek’s shores were host to more than 40 oil refineries, metal and chemical plants, manufactured gas plants, municipal and industrial discharge pipes, shipping and barging, and coal handling and storage facilities. Many of the industries in the Newtown Creek area discharged waste directly into Newtown Creek and its tributaries; upland spills of waste also eventually seeped into Newtown Creek and its tributaries.

In the early 1990s, New York State determined that Newtown Creek was not meeting water quality standards under the Clean Water Act. Since then, a number of limited investigations of the Study Area have taken place by various private entities or state and federal agencies.

In September 2009, Newtown Creek was proposed for the National Priorities List (NPL).

In September 2010, Newtown Creek was listed on the NPL and designated a Superfund site by EPA.

In July 2011, EPA entered into an Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent with the City of New York, and the five companies (Phelps Dodge, Texaco, BP, National Grid, and ExxonMobil) known as the Newtown Creek Group, to complete an investigation of Newtown Creek and its tributaries.

In 2011 – 2013, the first phase of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Field Sampling Program was implemented, which included multiple physical and ecological surveys, as well as surface water, sediment, and air sampling, in the Study Area and reference areas.

In 2014 – 2015, the second phase of the RI Field Sampling Program was implemented in the Study Area and reference areas, which included: additional physical and ecological surveys; additional surface water, sediment, and tissue sampling; and sampling of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, permitted discharges, and groundwater.

In 2016, the drafts of the Baseline Human Health Risk Assessment, Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment, and Remedial Investigation Report were submitted to EPA.

In the summer 2017, the Feasibility Study Field Program work will include additional nearshore and subsurface sediment and groundwater sampling, geotechnical sampling, and gas ebullition sampling.

In 2019, the draft Feasibility Study Report is to be submitted to EPA.

Newtown Creek Industrial History

1860-1900

1900-1960's

1970's-present

  • Oil refineries
  • Manufactured gas plants
  • Fertilizer companies
  • Manure dumps
  • Ice companies
  • Docking establishments
  • Tanneries
  • Fat rendering companies
  • Railroads
  • Bone-boiling companies
  • Slaughterhouses
  • Chemical companies
  • Metals-related industries
  • Fertilizer manufacturers
  • Sawmills and lumberyards
  • Creosote production
  • Distilleries
  • Paper products
  • Shipbuilding
  • Oil refineries
  • Manufactured gas plants
  • Metals-related industries
  • Lumber companies
  • Sand and gravel companies
  • Dumps
  • Varnish works
  • Concrete companies
  • Railroads
  • Meatpacking companies
  • Silk and fur dyeing companies
  • Coal wards
  • Chemical companies
  • Adhesive factories
  • Fertilizer manufacturers
  • Automobile
  • Creosote storage
  • Incinerator
  • Paint
  • Pigment industries
  • Plastics
  • Oil refineries
  • Natural gas suppliers
  • Scrap metal recyclers
  • Waste treatment and storage facilities
  • Metals-related industries
  • Chemical companies
  • Warehouses
  • Light industry
  • Railroads
  • Trucking companies
  • Bottling companies
  • Concrete companies
  • Adhesive factories
  • Automobile impoundments and repair
  • Incinerators
  • Plastics
  • Lumber companies
  • Utilities

BACKGROUND